Agricultural extension programs improve yields and incomes for farmers. Emilia also received advanced business management training and boosted her sales by training farmers on integrated soil fertility management, the targeted and precise use of chemical fertiliser, and selecting appropriate seeds, herbicides and pesticides. Traditional extension systems focus on increasing agricultural productivity, use a top-down approach and often emphasise the transfer of technology. Cassava roots. 1 Agriculture Terms & Definitions Adapted from the USDA Acid Soil: A soil with an acid reaction, a pH less than 7.0. 1966: Exte… Information about biodiversity is increas-ingly important to help farmers farm sustainably and access new markets. Some of these uncertainties could be mitigated by better access to information and communication technologies (ICT). In agricultural extension, there are also certain principles on which the subject matter is based on. 37 Full PDFs related to this paper. Contribution to Sustainable Intensification, Increasing productivity on current land requires significant investment in agricultural research and extension. Women’s participation in extension is limited by traditional, social and institutional factors. Scientific research on improved varieties and management practices of tef have, until recently, been little adopted by farmers. However, in case of developing countries, the role of agriculture extension office increases many folds. [11], A more recent analysis of farmer field schools (FFS) – a participatory approach to farmer education and empowerment featuring discovery learning, experimentation, and group action – found the cost per participant to range between US$20 and US$40. Extension can provide farmers with the tools and knowledge they need to adopt new sustainable methods of farming in order to increase their yields, improve their food security and livelihoods and build resilience against climate shocks. This model for extension, however, is becoming out-dated in the more competitive, market-oriented climate of today’s agriculture. Many countries, especially in Latin America, have privatised and contracted out advisory services. Urban agriculture has been most concisely defined by Wagstaff and Wortman (2013) as “all forms of agricultural production (food and non-food products) occurring within or around cities.” Download PDF. Download as PDF. [15] Today 75% of Africans own a mobile phone, making it increasingly easier to reach those located in remote rural areas with timely weather forecasts. Credit, Agriculture for Impact, Agricultural extension is the application of scientific research and knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education. [16] The Ghana Ministry of Agriculture Extension Service Portal, or the crowdsourcing model of WeFarm communicate a variety of information with farmers exclusively by SMS. DZARC and their partners also developed and used a novel agricultural extension approach to improve adoption rates. Agricultural extension and education is an essential tool for the development of integrated agricultural development programs (Shahbazi, 1996). Emilia continues to receive support from AGRA and the African Fertilizer and Agribusiness Partnership (AFAP) to access finance to expand her business. In Africa. Second, the new variety was demonstrated on-farm in large plots of ¼ hectare using a fast 1 year extension approach, rather than using small demo plots over 3 to 4 years, so that farmers were able to see the impact of the new variety and methods on yields more immediately. Within the donor community, a revitalised and expanded role for advisory and information services is seen as central to pro-poor agricultural growth. The improved higher yielding varieties tend to produce dark seeds, that are unappealing to consumers. Subscribe. In the case of Malawi in the early 1980’s, direct agent-to-farmer extension services cost US$21 per contact and US$4 to US$5 per participant for a one-day ‎‎training course. Agricultural extension is the application of scientific research and knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education. Rural Development's Cooperative Services Program promotes understanding and use of the cooperatives to market and distribute agricultural products. In other words, an objective means a direction of movement before, starting any programme, its objectives must be clearly stated, so that one knows where to go and what is to be achieved. Research on agricultural education and extension to develop competence for rural innovation, entrepreneurship, transformation, and integrated development. Agriculture and comprised research and extension, subsidies for a wide range of functions such as soil conservation works, boreholes, housing for farm workers, farm schools, fencing, disaster assistance etc. Many rural poor households face numerous risks, which require a more interactive extension system. College of Agricultural Sciences. Agricultural extension is the service that provides technical advice to farmers, helps farmers acquire required inputs including credit for farming, provides training and evaluates new agricultural technologies on farmers’ fields in close collaboration with farmers, helps link farmers to supply chain and markets, forwards farmers’ concerns and problems to decision makers and thus helps in … 1. Agricultural Extension Services. Extension is an informal educational process directed toward the rural population. The training of extension workers is also a potential driver of employment and economic growth. An important part of the package was ‎‎training provided to farmers by DZARC, with regular follow-up sessions and supervision. Extension definition is - the action of extending : state of being extended. This way, the farmers receive not only seed, but also a guarantee against the uncertainties regarding the performance of the new crop and associated technology. Technology acceptance model revisited for mobile based agricultural extension services in India, Agricultural Encyclopedias and Dictionaries, Agricultural Energy Consumers Association, Agricultural Engineer/Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural Engineering and Appropriate Technology Research Institute, Agricultural Engineering Research Institute, Agricultural Engineering Sciences Building, Agricultural Engineering Services Directorate, Agricultural Engineering Technical Information Center, Agricultural Engineering Technology and Business, Agricultural Environmental Management Services, Agricultural Environmental Stewardship Initiative, Agricultural Extension and Adaptive Research Project, Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Services, Agricultural Extension and Rural Development Department, Agricultural Extension and Rural Development Research Institute, Agricultural Extension Training Institute, Agricultural Field-Scale Irrigation Requirements Simulation, Agricultural Finance Corporation of Zimbabwe, Agricultural Financial Reporting and Analysis, Agricultural Foreign Investment Disclosure Act, Agricultural Foreign Investment Disclosure Act of 1978, Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute, Agricultural Geo-Referenced Information System, Agricultural Geographic Information System, Agricultural Ground and Surface Water Management Program, Agricultural Hazardous Materials Transportation Endorsement, Agricultural Hazards Early Warning System. Facilitation – the aim of this model is to help farmers to define their own problems and develop their own solutions. Whilst it is still common for agricultural extension workers to be male and to interact only with men, in recent years there has been growing recognition of women’s role in managing farm households and the importance of female to female communication in the adoption of new farming methods and technologies. It emphasizes taking knowledge gained through research and education and bringing it directly to the people to create positive changes. The project led to increased knowledge amongst farmers on improved production methods, including soil and water conservation. 2. “Communication is the interchange of ideas between two persons, in such a way that they act on the existing knowledge to achieve some useful results. 1965: Agricultural extension has been described as a system of out-of-school education for rural people. Extension, in general terms, is a function that can be applied to various areas of society. It operates in the industrial, health and education sectors, as well as agricultural and rural development. Lecture Notes ARG 305 Agricultural Extension Education. Map & Directions Map & Directions. Trained agents visit communities to ensure the dissemination of current best practices, organize cooperatives, and implement secondary programs. Technology transfer – the traditional model of the transfer of advice, knowledge and information in a linear manner; Agricultural extension services should support these kinds of initiatives by putting ecological restoration to a larger degree on their agenda and provide expertise in this field. These principles guide the agricultural extension officer and service provider to work in an organized way to ensure smooth flow of agricultural extension service at the door step of farmers. Farmers were given the initial seed by DZARC on a ‘revolving seed loan,’ a scheme that permits them to repay in equivalent amounts of seed after harvesting. Download. [2] 1. Therefore, it can be difficult to communicate or assimilate advice for widespread use. Emilia with her sunflower oil machine. The major constraint in tef husbandry is its susceptibility to lodging (where the plant is unable to support its own weight and may fall over or snap) that results in low productivity, about an average of 1 tonne per hectare. [18] However, agricultural knowledge is very contextual and requires a deep understanding of the entire farming system. Rural Development Cooperative Grants 3. Objectives of Extension Education The objectives of extension education are the expression of the ends forwards which our efforts are directed. Noun 1. extension agent - an advisor employed by the government to assist people in rural areas with methods of farming and home economics agricultural... Extension agent - definition of extension agent by The Free Dictionary Emilia now serves 300 farmers and used her profits to buy a sunflower processing machine to produce and sell sunflower oil for cooking. The proportion of agriculture budgets allocated to extension services varies from country to country, for example, from 5% in Zambia to 50% in Zimbabwe. A short summary of this paper. Importantly, farmers can be encouraged to achieve more with existing resources and prevent the expansion of arable land and to restore those lands that have been degraded. The dissemination of useful and However, Agricultural Extension can 2. practical information relating to be defined as an on-going process of agriculture and home economics; getting useful information to farmers or rural EXTENSION HANDBOOK Hudu Zakaria f 3 3.. Agriculture extension officer has a pivotal role in agriculture sector of any country. 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